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Dilution Refrigerator Measurement Systems

Bluefors cryogen-free Dilution Refrigerator Measurement Systems are the global benchmark for ultra-low temperature cooling systems.


Bluefors cryogen-free Dilution Refrigerator Measurement Systems are industry-leading, top-of-the-line cooling systems. They provide continuous cooling at ultra-low temperatures through the dilution process of helium-3–helium-4 mixture in a closed-loop environment.

The cooldown from room temperature is initiated at the push of a button, and systems can be operated and controlled fully remotely.

Gas Handling System & Control Software Generation 2


Product Highlights


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Dilution Refrigerator Measurement Systems

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Fully Automated Operation

Fully automated cooldown sequence from room to base temperature, initiated with a single push of a button.


Superior Performance

Low base temperatures with superior cooling power, and fast cooldown times.

See specification comparison of the systems.


Reliable

Not a single soft solder joint from the dilution refrigerator cooling unit to the vacuum space, for example, a fully welded main heat exchanger.


Extensive Options and Integrated Products

Bluefors Systems have extensive additional options available to create an optimal system configuration based on experiment needs. Systems can also include measurement infrastructure and superconducting magnets, depending on your needs.


Temperature Controller

The Bluefors Temperature Controller enhances the user experience of our cryogenic systems. With a modern and intuitive user interface, you gain direct control and overview of the system’s temperature status.

The Bluefors Temperature Controller is fully integrated to all dilution refrigerator measurement systems.

Read more about the Temperature Controller


Low Total Cost of Ownership

Oil-free pumps and compressors in the Gas Handling System guarantee minimal maintenance requirements, with a service interval up to 3 years. The systems contain only high-quality components such as Pfeiffer Vacuum pumps and pressure sensors, VAT vacuum valves and bellows.


Services

Total System Care

Total System Care enables you to focus on your own work – doing research and measurements. The service ensures that systems operate at the best possible performance level and with maximal uptime, without users needing to spend time maintaining the systems themselves.

Systems


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Dilution Refrigerator Measurement Systems

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System Comparison


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Dilution Refrigerator Measurement Systems

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Note: Cooling power is measured on experimental flange outside MXC.

SDLHLD250LD400XLD400slXLD1000sl
Cooling
Standard pulse tube configuration1 x PT4101 x PT4151 x PT4151 x PT4152 x PT4152 x PT420
Other available pulse tube modelsPT415, PT420, PT425, PT310PT420, PT425PT410, PT420, PT425, PT310PT410, PT420, PT425, PT3102 x PT420, 2 x PT425,
PT310 & PT425
2 x PT425, PT310 & PT425,
3 x PT420, 3 x PT425
Typical cooling power (µW) at 20 mKN/A1314161630
Typical cooling power (µW) at 100 mK2503003005004501000
Guaranteed base temperature (mK)<30<10<10<10<10<10
Mechanical features
MXC Flange diameter (mm)148294294294500500
Dilution Unit placementedgeedgeedgeedgecentercenter
Dilution Unit typeshorthorizontalstandardstandardstandarddual
Standard experimental ports
The number of available ports depends on the options and wiring configuration.
KF251
KF40245577
K63222
Side-loading ports66
Maximum number of coaxial cables14 (SMA)70 (SMA)77 (SMA)77 (SMA)>1000 (HDW)>1000 (HDW)

Services

Customer Care

We support our customers throughout the lifetime of their system, providing dedicated care to find solutions for any issues. Our technicians and engineers are ready to help you wherever you are located, with prompt service delivered either remotely or on-site.

Options and Related Products


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Dilution Refrigerator Measurement Systems

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Frequently Asked Questions


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Dilution Refrigerator Measurement Systems

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The cooldown time of any system is highly dependent on the amount of added mass, how well it is thermalized, and the quality of copper parts. Because every experiment is different, the added mass varies too much to offer a generalized fully loaded cooldown specification.

You can find performance graphs on our Dilution Refrigerator Measurement System pages that give example cooldown times for different system configurations.

Yes, each Bluefors DR and Helium system (SD, LD, XLD400sl, XLD1000sl) comes with our Gas Handling System and the required amount of helium-4 (60 L, 90 L, 180 L). Both are included in the system cost.

The He-3/He-4 ratios of Bluefors Dilution Refrigerators are:

  • SD: 12L/60L
  • LD250/LD400/XLD400/LH: 18 L/90 L or 20 L/90 L (for improved cooling power),
  • XLD1000: 40 L/180 L

The optimal He-3/He-4 ratio for the XLD1000sl system is 40 L/180 L. There is no reason to add more He-3, as it won’t result in increased cooling power.

To further increase XLD1000sl cooling power we recommend upgrading the pulse tubes to PT310 & PT425 which increase the MXC cooling power by 10-15%

Yes, cooling power can be increased by using a 20 L/90 L He-3/He-4 ratio instead of 18 L/90 L. We do not guarantee an exact value, but we have observed higher cooling power using a 20 L/90 L ratio than the guaranteed and expected values for 18 L/90 L.

To further increase the LD400 cooling power we recommend upgrading the pulse tube to PT310 which increases the MXC cooling power by 15-20%.

The LD system can be shipped with He-4 (90 L) only, but He-3 needs to be transferred during installation. The minimum amount of He-3 is 18 L. For the transfer, the container can be connected to either the KF16 or KF25 port on the gas handling system.

Old mixtures can be used, but the concentration must be known. Our system does not include equipment to analyze the isotopic composition in advance. It is also challenging to extract isotopes selectively once they are mixed.

The 18 L minimum amount of He-3 corresponds to about 17% concentration. This is the minimum concentration your mixtures must have to allow the system to function (in this case all He-4 would be pumped away, and the tank filled with the old mixture).

It is likely that old mixtures would be more concentrated. In this case, some He-4 can be left in the tanks and enough mixture to provide 18-24 L of He-3 would be transferred .

Mixtures should also be clean. We strongly recommend running the mixtures though at least an LN2 trap , and preferably also through an LHe-trap prior to the installation. If the mixtures come from an old dilution refrigerator with oil pumps, they can contain impurities which the LN-trap does not catch and may cause clogging of the system.

Note: For an XLD1000 system, the mixture amounts should be adjusted to 180L (He-4) and minimum 40L (He-3), corresponding to an 18% He-3 concentration.

No, the He-3 gas used does not need to be purchased from Bluefors. If a customer has their own He-3 gas, it is possible to use that. In those cases, the system is delivered with He-4 gas only and the He-3 can be transferred into the gas handling system through KF16 or KF25 port during installation.

The He-3 gas should have N3 (99.9%) purity, and the bottle should have a CGA 580 valve with 600 PSIG (depending on how many liters are in the bottle).

The minimum required amount of He-3 depends on the system type:

  • SD: 12 L
  • LD250/LD400/XLD400/LH: 18 L
  • XLD1000: 40 L
  • Helium systems: 0 or 7 L

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